A wide range of methodologies have been recently developed that permit an advanced imaging of materials at highly brilliant X-ray sources, including 2D ptychography, 3D (ptycho-) tomography, coherent diffraction imaging (CDI), or (phase contrast) full field imaging. With the advent of diffraction limited, ultra-low emittance (4th generation) storage rings, their high coherence and nano-sized X-ray beam novel experimental challenges can be addressed that were technically so far not feasible. This holds also true for imaging of biomaterials and interfaces in contact to a biological environment, where a better understanding of the relation between structural, dynamical, and functional properties is mandatory to develop new applications. At the same time, lab-based techniques offer complementary sample preparation along with post-beamtime analysis by focused ion beam (FIB), high resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with elemental analysis (EDX), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and FIB based slice and view tomography. Bio- and nano-science will particularly benefit from correlative microscopy and nano-navigation concepts that permit a simultaneous X-ray analysis and, e. g., optical or electronic characterization techniques from the very same nano-region. Current research topics investigated at the PETRA III storage ring at DESY on how to image cells with X-rays, to follow nanoparticles in a biological environment and to gain insight into structural details of bio-inspired materials are presented to illustrate the opportunities of X-ray imaging in the bio-field.